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The Repair and Modification of Saline Soils

The formation of Saline Soils
The formation area of saline soils is mainly on the coastal line, the edge of mountain and hill. The formation of coastal saline soils may be from: (1) Seawater erosion enters groundwater, which then brings salt to the ground. (2) Aquaculture ponds are populated along the coast. Due to saltwater is introduced into ponds, resulting in the accumulation of salt in the soil. The formation of saline soils along the edge of hillside can be: rain infiltrating into hill and dissolving salt, flowing to the downhill side and deposited on the surface. If the content of salt (sodium chloride) in soil is too high, and crops absorb excessive chloride ions, the leaves will wither. If the crops absorb excessive sodium ions, the roots will be thirsty and unable to absorb magnesium ions and other nutrients. In our living environment the land for agriculture always is limited. There are many reasons for the reducing of cultivated land area. Among them, over cultivation leads to land degradation and environmental factors lead to excessive salt content are the common reasons.

Characteristics of ideal arable land
What are the basic characteristics of ideal arable land? Besides for the limitation of salt, alkali and mineral content, the content and distribution of organic matters in soil are important indexes. In Figure 1, On the left is the ideal distribution of organic matter in textbooks, and on the right is the natural uncultivated soil section of the Hawaiian Islands. Obviously, The upper layer of dark humuic soil and its distribution are suitable for cultivation of most crops. In Figure 2, On the left is the distribution of organic matter (organic carbon) in fertile soil, and on the middle is the distribution of organic matter in degraded soil, On the right is the overlapping comparison of fertile and degraded soils, representing the distribution of organic matter to be supplemented and repaired.

Figure 1
fig_1_msw_organic_01 fig_1_msw_organic_02

Figure 2
fig_2_msw_organic_01 fig_2_msw_organic_02 fig_2_msw_organic_03

Repair Steps For Saline Soils
The restoration of saline soils requires two major steps. The first step is to reduce and remove the salt content. The second step is to restore organic matters distribution closing to the ideal soil organic matters distribution.

Reduce Salt Content How to reduce and remove the salt in the soil? The preferred method is to use fresh water for leaching. Based upon different situations, there are many ways to be arranged, for example: (1) Around base pile up soil, pour in fresh water, and drain water at low place. (2) Dig ditches around, pour in fresh water, and lead salt water into the ditches to drain outwards. (3) Freshwater irrigation, drilling wells in the downstream to drain out salt water. (4) If salt and soil are lumped together, they need to be rinsed several times.

Mixed With Organic Compost Matters
After the soil is washed or watered with fresh water, a large part of salt is removed, and then Organic Compost Matters (organic matter > 30%) is mixed into the soil. Mix at least 5-8 tons of Organic Compost Matters per mu, and mix the organic nutrient soil to the surface and deep layers of the soil, so as to provide enough organic materials for soil property modification.

Diversified Soil Microorganisms and Enzymes
Due to Organic Compost Materials can absorb and maintain water, spray water to keep wet, and spray soil improver, diversified soil microorganisms, fertilizer, or enzymes to promote the well fermentation of organic materials in soil. In addition, we introduced a new type of enzyme, which itself is a soil improver through combining fruit enzyme and soil microorganism, which can increase fermentation speed and reduce odor.

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